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Discovery of Sound in the Sea
What are common underwater sounds? - References, Additional Links, and Resources

  1. Mohl, B., Wahlberg, M., Madsen, P.T., Miller, L.A. and Surlykke, A. 2000, "Sperm whale clicks: Directionality and source level revisited." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 107(1): 638-648. 
  2. Watkins, W.A. 1980, "Acoustics and the behavior of sperm whales." Pp. 283-290 In: R.-G. Busnel and J.F. Fish (eds.), Animal sonar systems. Plenum, New York. 1135p. 
  3. Levenson, C. 1974, "Source level and bistatic target strength of the sperm whale (Physeter catodon) measured from an oceanographic aircraft." The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 55(5), 1100-1103. 
  4. Watkins, W. A., & Schevill, W. E. 1977, "Sperm Whale Codas." The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 62(6), 1485-1490. 
  5. Norris, K. S., Wursig, B., Wells, R. S., & Wursig, M. 1994, "The Hawaiian spinner dolphin." Univ of California Press. 
  6. Richardson, W.J., Green, C.R. Jr., Malme, C.I. and Thomson, D.H. 1995, "Marine Mammals and Noise." San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 
  7. Cummings, W. C., & Thompson, P. O. 1994, "Characteristics and seasons of blue and finback whale sounds along the US west coast as recorded at SOSUS stations." The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 95(5), 2853-2853. 
  8. Watkins, W.A, Tyack, P.L., Moore, K.E. and Bird, J.E. 1987, "The 20-Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus)" Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 82(6): 1901-1912. 
  9. Edds, P. L. 1988, "Characteristics of finback Balaenoptera physalus,vocalizations in the St. Lawrence Estuary." Bioacoustics, 1(2-3), 131-149. 
  10. Watkins, W. A. 1981, "Activities and underwater sounds of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus)." Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute (Japan). 
  11. Stafford, K. M., Fox, C. G., & Mate, B. R. 1994, "Acoustic detection and location of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) from SOSUS data by matched filtering." The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 96(5), 3250-3251. 
  12. Edds-Walton, P. L. 1997, "Acoustic communication signals of mysticete whales." Bioacoustics, 8(1-2), 47-60. 
  13. Aroyan, J. L., McDonald, M. A., Webb, S. C., Hildebrand, J. A., Clark, D., Laitman, J. T., & Reidenberg, J. S. 2000, "Acoustic models of sound production and propagation." In Hearing by whales and dolphins (pp. 409-469). Springer New York. 
  14. Swartz, S. L., & Cummings, W. C. 1978, "Gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus in Laguna San Ignacio, Baja California, Mexico." Prepared by San Diego Natural History Museum for U.S. Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, D.C. 
  15. Fish, J. F., Sumich, J. L., & Lingle, G. L. 1974, "Sounds produced by the gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus" Marine Fisheries Review, 36(4), 38-45. 
  16. Cummings, W.C., Thompson, P.O. and Cook, R. 1968, "Underwater sounds of migrating gray whales, Eschrichtius glaucus (Cope)" Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 44(5): 1278-1281. 
  17. Ljungblad, D.K., Thompson, P.O. and Moore, S.E. 1982, "Underwater sounds recorded from migrating bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, in 1979." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 71(2): 477-482. 
  18. Cummings, W.C. and Holliday, D.V. 1987, "Sounds and source levels from bowhead whales off Pt. Barrow, Alaska." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 82(3): 814-821. 
  19. Frankel, A. S. 1994, "Acoustic and visual tracking reveals distribution, song variability and social roles of humpback whales in Hawaiian waters.(Megaptera novaeangliae). " University of Hawaii. Manoa HI. 142p. 
  20. Payne, K., & Payne, R. 1985, "Large scale changes over 19 years in songs of humpback whales in Bermuda." Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 68(2), 89-114. 
  21. Thompson, T. J., Winn, H. E., & Perkins, P. J. 1979, "Mysticete sounds." (pp. 403-431). Springer US. 
  22. Thompson, P. O., Cummings, W. C., & Ha, S. J. 1986, "Sounds, source levels, and associated behavior of humpback whales, Southeast Alaska." The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 80(3), 735-740. 
  23. Clark, C. W. 1983, "Acoustic communication and behavior of the southern right whale (Eubalaena australis). " Communication and behavior of whales, 76, 101-110. 
  24. Clark, C. W. 1982, "The acoustic repertoire of the southern right whale, a quantitative analysis." Animal Behaviour, 30(4), 1060-1071. 
  25. Cummings, W. C., Fish, J. F., & Thompson, P. O. 1972, "Sound Production and Other Behavior of Southern Right Whales, Eubalen Glacialis" . San Diego Society of Natural History. 
  26. Munk, W. H., Spindel, R. C., Baggeroer, A., & Birdsall, T. G. 1994, "The heard island feasibility test." The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 96(4), 2330-2342. 
  • National Research Council. 2003, "Ocean Noise and Marine Mammals." The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. 
  • Wenz, G. M. 1962, "Acoustic ambient noise in the ocean: Spectra and sources." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 34, 1936-1956. 
Additional Links on DOSITS

Additional Resources

  • L.T. Hatch and A.J. Wright 2007, "A Brief Review of Anthropogenic Sound in the Oceans." International Journal of Comparative Psychology 20, 121-133.