Glossary - L
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L

labyrinth
a complex system of interconnecting bony or membranous cavities, particularly those concerned with hearing and balance
ladyfish
Elops saurus
lanugo
the soft, downy hair that covers some newborn mammals; in Arctic seals, it is a white fur that is highly prized by seal hunters, most famously associated with the hunting of harp seal pups
laryngeal sac
an inflatable “pouch”, or often a pair of pouches, that are generally located ventral to the larynx in many mammals, particularly in primates (but not in humans), hooved mammals (e.g., reindeer, horses, antelopes), and cetaceans. The functions of laryngeal sacs are not completely understood. Like the vocal sacs of frogs, laryngeal sacs may amplify calls but in some species, they may assist extended, rapid vocalizations by acting as air reservoirs.
larynx
the upper part of the trachea (air passage) that contains the vocal folds
lateral line
sensory organ, found in fishes, that runs long the length of their body. The lateral line allows fish to sense movement.
leopard seal
Hydrurga leptonyx
leopard shark
Triakis semifasciata
ligaments
strong, flexible bands of tissue that hold two or more bones together at moveable joints. They help restrain the movement of bones at the joint.
little skate
Raja erinacea
localize
determine the direction the sound is coming from.
LOFAR
Low Frequency and Ranging sonobuoy; a type of passive acoustic sonobuoy
logarithmic
of, relating to, or expressed in terms of logarithms. A logarithm is the power to which a base, such as 10, must be raised to produce a given number.
Lombard Effect
the unconscious tendency of a person or animal to raise and/or lower their voice when going from a relatively quiet to a noisy environment and vice versa
Long-spined sea urchin
Diadema setosum
longfin squid
Loligo pealeii
longitudinal wave
a disturbance in which the particles and the energy move in the same direction
loudness
how loud a person perceives a sound to be. Not the same as the intensity of the sound. The perceived loudness varies with frequency.
lunge-feeding
a method of feeding underwater in which the predator moves forward with its mouth open, engulfing the prey along with the water surrounding it.
Lusitanian toadfish
Halobatrachus didactylus